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1) Standard zones can be primary or secondary. The primary zone is the official copy of the Dynamic Name System (DNS) zone which is the read and write copy of the zone. A standard secondary zone is a copy of the primary zone that is used for fault tolerance and load balancing. The secondary provides fault tolerance and load balancing by being a read only copy of the zone and responding to DNS queries while the primary is down or busy. Any needed changes to the zone must be performed on the primary zone. To ensure that the secondary zone have a good copy of the zone file the primary send a replicated copy of its zone file periodically to the secondary DNS server. Standard zones were the old way that DNS was used and is still used these days if you do not plan to use active directory. The standard zones are easily poisoned so if they are being used it is best to keep them to internal use
Active Directory-Integrated zones use Active Directory to store data instead of text files. All changes within Active Directory-Integrated zones are sent to all other Active Directory-Integrated servers within the zone making it capable of fault tolerance and load balancing. It also eliminates the single point of failure that the standard zones had when the primary zone goes down. All zone transfers and dynamic updates are done securely by encrypting the Active Directory replication. The Active Directory-Integrated zones are more commonly used these days do to their security features. They are easily configured and managed.
A stub zone is a copy of a zone that contains only those resource records necessary to identify the authoritative Domain Name System (DNS) servers for that zone. They are most commonly used when a merger between two companies requires that the DNS servers for separate namespaces resolve names for clients in both namespaces. Stub zones minimize the amount of records in a zone to the Start of Authority resource record, Name Server resource records, and A records for the delegated zone.
2) There are two main types of DNS zones called Standard and Active Directory DNS zone. Besides these, there are many other subcategories of zones. There are two sub-categories of standard zone named primary and secondary zones. Standard zones are helpful for replication because it provides to save a copy of data. The primary standard zone resides on the master server and can be edited while the secondary zone has only read permission which means it only save a copy of data to another server without any editing permission. This provides fault tolerance. Standard zones are helpful when you do not plan to integrate Active Directory with DNS servers. The standard zone saves data into clear text. Also, saving data into clear text is not secure therefore an administrator needs to implement this structure with IPsec.
Active Directory is an enhanced version of primary DNS. Saving data into the AD DNS zone helps replicate to other domain and forest because it is multi-master primary zones. Other benefits are speed directory replication, automate synchronization, less administrative work, and secure dynamic updates. ADI zones store data into Active Directory data structures.
Stub zones reside in a secondary zone. This helps to pass information about SOA, NS, and A records. This behaves like Conditional Forwarder.
Some of the other types of zones are forward lookup zone which helps to map a hostname to an IP address and reverse lookup zone are opposite of it. It maps an IP address to a hostname.
3) Explain the purpose the SOA record?
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