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dep 2004 human growth and development research paper- College Paper Lab | collegepaperslab.com

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Hello, everyone

These are the Research Paper Assigned Topics for the 20 SUM A Term for the Online Human Growth class (DL-A1)!

  • All students will develop Only the assigned topic and failure to do so, you will receive 0.00 grade for this assignment.
  • Your research paper must be new and original, that is to say, you CAN NOT copy and paste information from any other student’s paper, institution or class!
  • You will receive a 0.00 grade for this assignment if you copy and paste information from another student’s paper! No exception.
  • To submit, your assigned topic, you will need to go to the TAB for Research paper project (On the left column on the online class).
  • You must submit your paper on Week 5 on Saturday, June 6th, 2020 before 10:00 P.M

My topic Premature Ejaculation Disorder

The paper assignment must include the following structure and it must comply with APA written standards:

  • Title page (1)
  • Abstract page (1)
  • Content pages (5)
  • Conclusion page (1)
  • And Reference page (1): You must provide the 3 journals from the FNU database to support your paper.

Therefore, there must be a minimum of nine (9) pages per project.

  • You must develop the assigned topic Only provided on Week 2 through the Class announcements! Your research paper assignment will Not be accepted or graded if you submitted a different topic from the one assigned to you previouly!
  • For more detailed information please, go to the following link: http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/index.htm.
  • By copying and pasting information to complete any assignment during the class such as Research papers, or Discussion Forums would not be tolerated. Therefore, your grade will receive 0.00 grade for this assignment. No Make-up or No exception!
  • You must include at least three (3) professional journal articles (Primary Sources) from the FNU Database for journals in Psychology. Include in-text citations for any information taken, quoted or paraphrased from references sources.
  • Use APA citation style in the body of your paper so I know where the information came from (like your text does). This is the (Author, date) you see in your text. It gives credit to original author’s research and are alphabetized by the author’s last name.

Your research paper assignment will be your own research and writing and you are not allowed to copy or paste information! If so, you will receive a 0.00 score for this assignment!

Please, refer to the DSM-5 Manual (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) to meet the criteria for the specific disorder on your topic if your assigned topic is a psychological disorder.

Prof. Rafael Ramos, M.S.

Research Rubric

Category

Exceeds Standards

Meets Standards

Nearly Meets standards

Does Not Meet Standards

No

Evidence

Score

Title Page

Assigned Title, Your Full Name, School Name, Professor’s Name and credentials, and Date of submission. In addition to the Capitalized Running head and Page number. No errors.

Evidence of five aspects or more

Evidence of four to three aspects

Evidence of two aspects or less

Absent.

0-10

Abstract Page

Clearly and concisely states the paper’s purpose. The abstract content is engaging, states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper.

The introduction states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper.

The introduction states the main topic but does not adequately preview the structure of the paper.

There is no clear introduction or main topic and the structure of the paper is missing.

Absent or no evidence.

0-10

Content pages:

(60 points)

(Developing Body Pages)

Content pages have thoughtful supporting detail sentences that develop the main idea of the topic.

Content pages have sufficient supporting detail sentences that develop the main of the topic.

Content pages lacks supporting detail sentences of the topic.

Content pages fail to develop the main idea of the topic.

Not applicable

0-10

Organization of structural development of the research paper topic.

Student demonstrates logical sequencing of ideas through well-developed paragraphs, relevant info and details about the topic. Used DSM-5 criteria and database information to support your paper.

Paragraph development present but not perfected.

Logical organization; organization of ideas not fully developed.

No evidence of structure or organization.

Not applicable

0-20

Mechanics

No errors in punctuation, capitalization and spelling.

Almost no errors in punctuation, capitalization and spelling

Many errors in punctuation, capitalization and spelling.

Numerous and distracting errors in punctuation, capitalization and spelling.

Not applicable

0-10

Usage

No errors sentence structure and word usage.

Almost no errors in sentence structure and word usage.

Many errors in sentence structure and word usage.

Numerous and distracting errors in sentence structure and word usage.

Not applicable.

0-10

Citation

All cited works, both text and visual, are done in the correct format with no errors.

Some cited works, both text and visual, are done in the correct format. Inconsistencies evident.

Few cited works, both text and visual, are done in the correct format.

Absent

Not applicable.

0-10

Conclusion Page

The conclusion is engaging and restates the main points from the research a topic as well as the use of statistics and/or percentages.

The conclusion restates the fairly the main point of the research paper topic.

The conclusion does not adequately restate the paper topic.

Incomplete and/or unfocused.

Absent or no evidence.

0-10

Reference Page

Done in the correct format with no errors. Includes three (3) or more professional journals from FNU database and any other reliable source of information to support your paper topic.

Wikipedia is Not a reliable source of information. Please, Do NOT use it!!!

Done in the correct format with a few errors. Includes three (3) or more professional journals from FNU database and five (5) references (e.g. science journal articles, books, but no more than five internet sites. Periodicals available on-line are not considered internet sites)

Done in the correct format with some errors. Includes only two (2) of the professional journals from the FNU database and three to four (3-4) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, but no more than two internet sites. Periodicals available on-line are not considered internet).

Done in the correct format with many errors. It did not include any professional journals from the FNU database and one to two (1-2) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, but no more than two internet sites. Periodicals available on-line are not considered internet sites.)

Absent or the only sites are internet sites.

0-10

Research Paper Rubric for Florida National University.

3 journals from the FNU database

1-Full text

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Headnote

Little is known about sexual dysfunctions comorbid with anxiety disorder The aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively the sexual function of social phobic patients in comparison with a panic disorder sample. Using a semistructured interview (SCID-I), 30 patients with social phobia and 28 patients with panic disorder were examined. The DSM-IV criteria were employed to diagnose sexual dysfunctions in this sample; however, the “C” criterion, which states that “the sexual dysfunction cannot be related to otherAxis I disorders,” was excluded. Panic disorder patients reported a significantly greater proportion of sexual disorders compared with social phobics: 75% (21/28) vs. 33.3% (10/30) (p = .0034). Sexual aversion disorder was the most common sexual dysfunction in both male (35.7%; 5/14) and female (50%; 7/14) panic disorder patients, and premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction in male social phobic patients: 47.4% (9/19). These results suggest that sexual dysfunctions are frequent and neglected complications of social phobia and panic disorder.

Headnote

KEY WORDS: sexual dysfunctions; phobic disorders; panic disorder; anxiety disorders.

INTRODUCTION

Clinicians and researchers, employing both psychoanalytical and behavioral perspectives, have long noted the relationship between sexual dysfunction and anxiety (Cooper, 1969; Rachman, 1961; Stekel, 1927; Wolpe, 1958). The majority of these authors worked with patients who had sought treatment for sexual problems (Kaplan, 1988). Trying to discern the etiology of their patients’ sexual problems, these authors focused on anxiety as one of the major components in these multiply determined problems. But, because of the nature of their patient population, the data they obtained about the relationship between sexual dysfunction and anxiety were based on sexual dysfunction samples.

More recently, psychiatrists have approached this relationship from a different angle. Because of the increased use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), some psychiatrists have begun to study sexual problems in anxiety disorder samples (Kindler et al., 1997). Because of the discovery of sexual dysfunction as an important side effect of these medications, psychiatrists are increasingly aware of the relevance of obtaining data about the sexual dysfunctions and the sexual history of their patients before beginning treatment (Labbate et al., 1998; Waldinger and Olivier, 1998).

Currently, the SSRIs are considered the medication of choice in the treatment of panic disorder and social phobia (Gorman and Kent, 1999); however, given their great impact upon sexuality, there have been few studies of the occurrence of sexual dysfunction among panic disorder and social phobic patients (Kaplan et al., 1982; Sbrocco et al., 1997). To begin to fill this gap, we conducted a retrospective study of sexual dysfunction and sexual history in patients with social phobia and compared them with a panic disorder sample.

METHODS

We retrospectively evaluated the sexual function and the sexual history of 30 patients with social phobia and 28 patients with panic disorder. We used the DSM-IV criteria to identify the different sexual dysfunctions (American Psychiatric Association, 1994); the sexual history was obtained through a semistructured anamnesis developed for this study. In terms of sexual history, we asked about the following variables: (1) virginal status; (2) patient’s age at first sexual relationship; (3) with whom they first had sexual intercourse (prostitute, boyfriend/girlfriend, or other); (4) frequency of sexual intercourse; (5) masturbatory practices; (6) presence of current sexual partner, (7) sexual orientation (homosexual or heterosexual); and (8) occurrence of panic attack during sexual intercourse.

We used a semistructured interview (SCID-I) (First et al., 1995) to obtain the diagnoses of social phobia and panic disorder according to the DSM-IV; however, we excluded the “C” criterion which states that “the sexual dysfunction cannot be related to other Axis I disorders.” We did this because we judged that this criterion prevents awareness of the impact of anxiety disorders upon sexuality. After obtaining informed consent, we evaluated the patients retrospectively, asking questions about their sexual life at the time when they first entered the Anxiety and Depression Program of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. This group of patients had been under psychopharmacological treatment (for social phobia and panic disorder) in the Program for a median time of 2.4 years. None of these patients were taking psychopharmacological medication at the time they first entered the Program.

The following exclusion criteria were adopted: (1) presence of comorbid depressive disorder, psychotic disorder, borderline or antisocial personality disorder; (2) concomitant medical conditions that could affect sexual functioning; and (3) sexual dysfunctions induced by clinical medications. Based on the above exclusion criteria, 20 patients were eliminated of the 78 who were initially interviewed: 8 patients with depressive disorder, 2 with psychotic disorder, and 10 with sexual disorders probably induced by clinical medications. To ensure uniformity, one interviewer was employed to conduct all 78 interviews.

The categorical variables were analyzed with the X^sup 2^-square test with Yates correction or Fishers’ Exact Text. The continuous variables were analyzed with the t test of Student. The significance level was at p < .05.

RESULTS

Age (mean +/- SD) was similar in social phobia (36.46 +/- 11.38 years) and panic disorder (34.39 +/- 7.39 years) patients (t = 0.8282; p = .4115; NS) (unpaired t test with Welch correction). There was also no significant difference in the proportion of male patients with social phobia compared with panic disorder: 63.3% (19/30) versus 50% (14/28) (X2 = 0.3752; p = .37521 with Yates correction). However, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of marital status: most of the social phobic patients were single compared with the panic disorder patients: 63.3% versus 17.9% (X^sup 2^ = 12.61; df = 2; p = .00 18). Comparing both disorders divided by gender, only the males differed in terms of marital status: male social phobics had a significantly higher percentage of singles compared with male panic disorder patients: 63.1% (12/19) versus 0% (0/13) (p = .0004; Fishers’ Exact Test); there was no difference in the percentage of singles among women: 70% (7/10) versus 35.7% (5/14) (p = .2141) (X^sup 2^ = 1.54; p = .2141 with Yates correction)

Comparing both groups, we found that panic disorder patients reported a significantly greater proportion of sexual disorders than social phobics did: 75.0% (21/28) vs. 33.3% (10/30) (X^sup 2^ = 8.5; p = .0034 with Yates correction). In terms of the frequency of specific sexual dysfunctions, two main results were found, (Tables I and II): (1) sexual aversion disorder was the most common sexual dysfunction in both male (35.7%; 5/14) and female (50.0%; 7/14) panic disorder patients; and (2) premature ejaculation was the most common sexual dysfunction in male social phobic patients: 47.4% (919).

Comparing the frequency of different sexual disorders in panic disorder and social phobic patients, based on gender, we observed that (1) sexual aversion disorder was the only sexual dysfunction that presented a statistically significant difference in both male (p = .0084) and female groups (p = .0078), being higher in panic disorder patients; and (2) among males, premature ejaculation occurred with somewhat greater frequency in social phobic patients (47.4%) compared with panic disorder patients (21.4%); however, this did not reach statistical significance.

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Table I.

Comparing the sexual history of male social phobic patients with that of male panic disorder patients (Table III), we found a significant difference in the following variables (social phobia vs. panic disorder): (1) higher age of first sexual intercourse (17.2 vs. 16.5 years); (2) higher percentage of those engaging in masturbation (80% vs. 10.7%); (3) lack of current sexual partner (31.6% vs. 0.0%); and (4) while social phobics frequently had had prostitutes as their first sexual partners (57.9% vs. 14.3%), the majority of panic disorder patients initiated their sexual life with girlfriends (26.3% vs. 85.7%).

In terms of sexual history (Table IV), female social phobic patients differed from female panic disorder patients in the following variables (social phobia vs. panic disorder): (1) lower percentage of those with boyfriends as their first sexual partner (36.4% vs. 92.8%); and (2) higher percentage engaging in masturbation (81.8% vs. 7.1%).

DISCUSSION

Sexual aversion disorder was the most common sexual dysfunction in panic disorder patients (42.9%; 12/28), while premature ejaculation was the most frequent sexual disorder in male social phobic patients (47.9%; 9/19).

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Table II.

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Table III.

The high frequency of sexual aversion disorder in both male (35.7%; 5/14) and female (50.0%; 7/14) panic disorder patients was much greater than the prevalence of this sexual disorder in the general population, which has been estimated to be lower than 2% (Kaplan, 1987). The work of Kaplan (1987) supports our findings of an association between sexual aversion disorder and panic disorder. They reported a high prevalence of symptoms of panic disorder spectrum (63%) in patients who had not responded to traditional behavioral-cognitive treatments for sexual dysfunction. In all these cases, panic disorder preceded sexual aversion disorder in terms of temporal sequence. In our series as well, sexual aversion was secondary to panic disorder. While our patients, similar to Kaplan’s, said that they avoided sexual intercourse because they feared having a panic attack, only five reported that they indeed had suffered a panic attack during intercourse. Taken together, these facts suggest that sexual aversion may be part of the agoraphobic spectrum; that is, because of fear of panic attack patients become aversively conditioned to avoiding sexual intercourse. Kaplan et al. (1982) tested their hypothesis that sexual aversion was a consequence of the patient’s fear of panic attack by treating these patients with medications appropriate for panic disorder, and found positive results in both conditions.

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Table IV.

Considering Kaplan’s findings, the question arises: why has sexual aversion disorder not been recognized as a complication of panic disorder? One possible explanation is that sexual aversion disorder entered the official diagnostic system only in 1987 (DSM-III-R), being the last sexual disorder to be included in the American taxonomy (Vroege et al., 1998). Because of the recent nature of this diagnosis and the scarcity of studies, Kaplan (1987) called sexual aversion disorder “[a] Neglected Sexual Disorder.”

Another finding of our study was the high prevalence of premature ejaculation in male social phobic patients: 47.4%. While community studies (Laumann et al., 1999) show that premature ejaculation is found in 21% of males, and clinical studies (Read et al., 1997) estimate prevalence at circa 30%, our rate is higher. But we could not compare our clinical sample data because, to the best of our knowledge, there are no other studies on the prevalence of premature ejaculation in social phobic patients.

We speculate that the absence of data on sexual dysfunction and social phobia could be caused in part by the great uneasiness provoked by sexual issues in patients with social anxiety (and their doctors), hence the difficulty in obtaining data on these problems. However, other studies have shown an association between performance anxiety and premature ejaculation. Indeed, Redmond et al. (1983), reviewing the literature on the topic, cited Sterba’s report of spontaneous ejaculation occurring in two boys during school examinations (Sterba, 1942). The reviewers observed that “[a]nxiety and fear related specifically to sexual performance might lead to premature spontaneous ejaculation as part of a more general pattern of sexual arousal accompanied by severe anxiety” (p. 1165). More research is needed to determine if premature ejaculation is more associated with social anxiety than with other forms of anxiety such as panic attacks.

Our sexual history data support the idea that social phobia has a greater negative impact than does panic disorder on quality of life issues such as the ability to engage in love or sexual relationships. We found that male social phobics, as compared with male panic disorder patients, reported a significantly higher rate of the following variables: (1) prostitutes as their first sexual partners; (2) lack of current sexual partner; and (3) percentage of single patients versus married patients. Females differed statistically in only one variable: female social phobics had a lower percentage of boyfriends as their first sexual partners than female panic disorder patients had. However, we think that in larger samples, the greater negative impact of social phobia probably will also be detected in female patients.

Other studies have confirmed our results. For instance, the negative impact of social anxiety upon sexuality was demonstrated in a survey conducted by Leary and Dobbins (1983) in a US sample of 260 college students. They found that those students with higher scores in heterosexual anxiety differed from those with lower scores by having had fewer previous sexual partners, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, higher incidences of sexual difficulties, less probability of engaging in oral sex, greater unhappiness in their sexual encounters, and, particularly for females, problems in being assertive and asking their partner to use a condom. Leary and Dobbins (1983) observed that social anxiety is accompanied by disaffiliative reaction-“[b]ehaviors that function to reduce the amount of social contact the anxious individual has with others” (p. 1348). This disaffiliative behavior diminishes the opportunities of socially anxious individuals to meet and get to know others. According to Leary and Dobbins, this results “[fln a smaller pool of potential dating, romantic and sexual partners. Because they date less frequently, socially anxious individuals may become involved in fewer relationships that include a sexual dimension and, thus, may be less sexually experienced than others of their age” (p. 1348).

Our sexual history data also suggest that the aversive impact of panic attack upon sexuality may be linked to two other sexual history variables: (1) frequency of panic attacks during sexual intercourse; and (2) frequency of masturbation. We think that it is not a coincidence that a statistically greater number of patients with panic disorder reported having a panic attack during sexual intercourse. All of the five panic disorder patients who reported panic attacks during sexual intercourse also reported a sexual dysfunction: two with sexual aversion disorder, one with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, one with premature ejaculation, and one with male erectile dysfunction. However, we cannot explain the fact that all of these patients were male, a finding that may reflect the cultural conditioning of sexual expression. Because in most cultures men have a more active sexual role than women, we speculate that as a consequence, men may have a higher rate of autonomic activation which could be interpreted by them as a panic attack (and which, in fact, can trigger one). However, we have to be cautious in attributing a causal relationship between panic attack and sexual aversion disorder because this sexual disorder is produced by the interaction of multiple variables beyond biological ones (e.g., developmental neglect, abuse, religious beliefs, etc.).

Two limitations of our study are the small sample and the retrospective design. Because of the retrospective design, some patients may not have accurately remembered the sexual problems and behaviors they suffered when they first entered our research program (2.4 years previously).

Two instances illustrate the clinical implications of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and sexual dysfunctions in terms of the development of a pharmacological treatment strategy:

1. Patients with comorbid premature ejaculation and anxiety disorder may benefit from medications with strong serotonergic agonism (e.g., SSRIs). Since SSRIs have a documented efficacy in the treatment of both social phobia (Liebowitz, 1999) and premature ejaculation (Balon, 1996), this class of medication could be used to treat the two disorders simultaneously. Further studies should be carried out to assess if there may be a subgroup of social phobics with coexistent premature ejaculation who would benefit more from using SSRIs than other pharmacological treatments (e.g., benzodiazepines, MAOIs) because of this double therapeutic action.

2. Patients with comorbid sexual aversion disorder and panic disorder may benefit from treatment with an antipanic agent, as the sexual dysfunction may be secondary to the panic attack. Such a pharmacological strategy may also facilitate the psychological treatment of sexual aversion disorder.

References

REFERENCES

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC.

Balon, R. (1996). Antidepressants in the treatment of premature ejaculation. J Sex Marital Ther. 22: 85-96.

References

Cooper, A. J. (1969). A clinical study of “coital anxiety” in male potency disorder. J. Psychosom. Res. 13:143-147.

First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., and Williams, J. B. W. (1995). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York. Gorman, J. M., and Kent, J. M. (1999). SSRIs and SNRIs: Broad spectrum of efficacy beyond major depression. J. Clin. Psychiatry 60 (Suppl. 4): 33-38.

Kaplan, H. S. (1987). Sexual Aversion, Sexual Phobias, and Panic Disorder, Brunner/Mazel, New York.

Kaplan, H. S. (1988). Anxiety and sexual dysfunction. J. Clin. Psychiatry 49 (Suppl.): 21-25.

Kaplan, H. S., Fyer, A. J., and Novick, A. (1982). The treatment of sexual phobias: The combined use

of antipanic medication and sex therapy. J. Sex Marital Ther. 8: 3-28.

Kindler, S., Dolberg, 0. T., Cohen, H., Hirschmann, S., and Kotler, M. (1997). The treatment of comorbid premature ejaculation and panic disorder with fluoxetine. Clin. Neuropharmacol. 20: 466-471.

References

Labbate, L. A., Grimes, J., Hines, A., Oleshansky, M. A., and Arana, G. W. (1998). Sexual dysfunction induced by serotonin reuptake antidepressants. J. Sex Marital Ther. 24: 3-12.

Laumann, E. O., Paik, A., and Rosen, R. C. (1999). Sexual dysfunction in the United States: Prevalence and predictors. JAMA 281: 537-544.

Leary, M. R., and Dobbins, S. E. (1983). Social anxiety, sexual behavior, and contraceptive use. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 45: 1347-1354.

Liebowitz, M. R. (1999). Update on the diagnosis and treatment of social anxiety disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 60 (Suppl. 18): 22-26.

References

Rachman, S. (1961). Sexual disorders and behavior therapy. Am. J. Psychiatry 118: 235.

Read, S., King, M., and Watson, J. (1997). Sexual dysfunction in primary medical care: Prevalence, characteristics and detection by the general practitioner. J Public Health Med. 4: 387-391. Redmond, D. E., Jr., Kosten, T. R., and Reiser, M. F. (1983). Spontaneous ejaculation associated with

anxiety: Psychophysiological considerations. Am. J. Psychiatry 140: 1163-1166.

Sbrocco, T., Weisberg, R. B., Barlow, D. H., and Carter, M. M. (1997). The conceptual relationship between panic disorder and male erectile dysfunction. J. Sex Marital Ther 23: 212-220.

Stekel, W. (1927). Impotence in the Male, Liveright, New York.

Sterba, R. (1942). Introduction to the psychoanalytic theory of the libido. Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series 68: 56.

Vroege, J. A., Gijs, L., and Hengeveld, M. W. (1998). Classification of sexual dysfunctions: Towards DSM-V and ICD- 11. Compr Psychiatry 39: 333-337.

Waldinger, M. D., and Olivier, B. (1998). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction: Clinical and research considerations. Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol 13 (Suppl. 6): S27-533. Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

AuthorAffiliation

Ivan Figueira, MD,1,4 Elizabete Possidente, MD,2 Carla Marques, MD,2 and Kelly Hayes, MA3

AuthorAffiliation

1Anxiety and Depression Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

2Anxiety and Depression Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

3University of Chicago, History of Religions Program, Divinity School, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

4To whom correspondence should be addressed at Rua Dona Mariana 182, Block I Apartment 1503, Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro. RJ., Brazil, 22280-020.

Copyright Plenum Publishing Corporation Aug 2001

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Barbara Natterson-Horowitz’s world was turned upside down by a monkey with a heart attack. Natterson-Horowitz is a cardiologist at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. She’s also on the medical advisory board for the Los Angeles Zoo, where she goes from time to time to consult for the zoo veterinarians. One day in 2005, the vets at the zoo asked her to come by to take a look at a kitten-size emperor tamarin named Spitzbuben that was suffering from heart failure.

As Natters

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